Foxtrot-class submarine

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Foxtrot class
Foxtrot class SS.svg
Cuban Foxtrot submarine.jpg
A Cuban Foxtrot underway
Class overview
Builders: Sudomekh, Leningrad
Operators:
Preceded by: Zulu-class submarine
Succeeded by: Tango-class submarine
Built: 1957–1983
In service: 1958–2014
In commission: 1958–2014
Completed: 74
Lost: 1
Preserved: 7
General characteristics
Type: Submarine
Displacement:
  • 1,952 long tons (1,983 t) surfaced
  • 2,475 long tons (2,515 t) submerged
Length: 89.9 m (294 ft 11 in)
Beam: 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)
Draft: 5.9 m (19 ft 4 in)
Propulsion:
  • 3 × Kolomna 2D42M 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) diesel engines
  • 3 × Electric motors, two 1,350 hp (1,010 kW) and one 2,700 hp (2,000 kW)
  • 1 × 180 hp (130 kW) auxiliary motor
  • 3 shafts, each with 6-bladed propellers
Speed:
  • 16 knots (30 km/h) surfaced
  • 15 knots (28 km/h) submerged
  • 9 knots (17 km/h) snorkeling
Range:
  • 20,000 nmi (37,000 km) at 8 kn (15 km/h) surfaced
  • 11,000 nmi (20,000 km) snorkeling
  • 380 nmi (700 km) at 2 kn (3.7 km/h) submerged
Endurance: 3-5 days submerged
Test depth: 246–296 m (807–971 ft)
Complement: 12 officers, 10 warrants, 56 seamen
Armament:

The Foxtrot class was the NATO reporting name of a class of diesel-electric patrol submarines that were built in the Soviet Union. The Soviet designation of this class was Project 641. The Foxtrot class was designed to replace the earlier Zulu class, which suffered from structural weaknesses and harmonic vibration problems that limited its operational depth and submerged speed. The first Foxtrot keel was laid down in 1957 and commissioned in 1958 and the last was completed in 1983. A total of 58 were built for the Soviet Navy at the Sudomekh division of the Admiralty Shipyard (now Admiralty Wharves), Saint Petersburg.[1] Additional hulls were built for other countries.

The Foxtrot class was comparable in performance and armament to most contemporary designs. However, its three screws made it noisier than most Western designs. Moreover, the Foxtrot class was one of the last designs introduced before the adoption of the teardrop hull, which offered much better underwater performance. Also, although the Foxtrot was larger than a Zulu class submarine, the Foxtrot class had 2 of its 3 decks dedicated to batteries. This gave it an underwater endurance of 10 days, but the weight of the batteries made the Foxtrot's average speed a slow 2 knots at its maximum submerged time capability. Due to the batteries taking up 2 decks, onboard conditions were crowded with space being relatively small even when compared to older submarines such as the much older American Balao-class submarine. The Foxtrot class was completely obsolete by the time the last submarine was launched. The Russian Navy retired its last Foxtrots between 1995 and 2000;[2] units were scrapped and disposed of for museum purposes.[3] During the division of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, in 1997 one Foxtrot class submarine (later renamed as Zaporizhzhia) was passed to Ukraine as it was not operational since 1991. The ship never effectively served in the Ukrainian Navy and was under repair. In 2005 Ukrainian Ministry of Defence wanted to sell it, but was unsuccessful. Following successful post-repair trials in June 2013, it was recognised as operational.[4] However, on 22 March 2014 it was surrendered to or captured by Russia as part of the Russian annexation of Crimea.[5] Russia decided not to accept it due to its age and operational unsuitability. Its subsequent status was unknown.

Cuban Missile Crisis[edit]

Foxtrots played a central role in some of the most dramatic incidents of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Soviet Navy deployed four Foxtrot submarines to Cuba. US Navy destroyers dropped practice depth charges near Foxtrot subs near Cuba in efforts to force them to surface and be identified. Three of the four Foxtrot submarines were forced to surface, one eluded US forces.[1]

Units[edit]

Following is a list of 58 of the 75[6] Foxtrot-class submarines built during the Soviet Project 641.

Inside the aft torpedo room.
Aft torpedo room of a Foxtrot museum ship.
Opened torpedo tube in a Foxtrot
Electric generator/motor controls
Project 641 (NATO: Foxtrot Class)
Number Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Decommissioned Status
B-94 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 3 October 1957 28 December 1957 1 October 1984 Decommissioned for scrapping[1]
B-95 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 2 February 1958 25 April 1958 22 February 1980 Decommissioned for scrapping[1]
B-36 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 29 April 1958 31 August 1958 24 August 1993 Decommissioned for scrapping[1]
B-37 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18 July 1958 5 November 1958 11 January 1962 Sank after fire and multiple explosions
B-133 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 27 September 1958 26 January 1959 1 October 1983 Renamed B-833
B-135 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 20 December 1958 30 March 1959 1 July 1977 -
B-139 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 25 February 1959 30 May 1959 1 October 1976 Renamed B-839
B-116 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 9 June 1959 10 October 1959 28 September 1994 -
B-130 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 22 August 1959 17 December 1959 1 October 1988 -
B-85 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 23 December 1959 19 March 1960 19 April 1990 -
B-59 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 21 February 1960 6 June 1960 19 April 1990 -
B-156 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 20 April 1960 2 August 1960 19 April 1991 -
B-153 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 6 August 1960 31 January 1961 24 June 1991 Renamed B-854
B-164 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 26 October 1960 2 August 1960 3 July 1992 -
B-33 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 3 February 1961 27 April 1961 24 June 1991 -
B-105 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 1 July 1961 1 October 1961 24 August 1993 -
B-169 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 17 August 1961 29 November 1961 19 April 1990 -
B-38 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 30 October 1961 31 January 1962 25 April 1989 -
B-53 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 8 January 1962 12 April 1962 19 April 1990 renamed B-853
B-50 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 7 March 1962 15 June 1962 3 July 1992 -
B-8 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 9 May 1962 21 July 1962 19 April 1990 -
B-31 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18 August 1962 3 November 1962 24 June 1991 -
B-2 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 27 October 1962 25 January 1963 24 June 1991 -
B-55 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 22 January 1963 5 April 1963 3 July 1992 renamed B-855
B-98 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 4 April 1963 15 June 1963 2001 Renamed 292 Wilk
B-101 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 19 June 1963 30 August 1963 30 June 1993 -
B-6 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 9 August 1963 30 November 1963 24 August 1994 -
B-103 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 14 December 1963 16 April 1964 24 June 1991 -
B-109 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 22 February 1964 17 June 1964 28 September 1997 -
B-107 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18 April 1964 25 July 1964 4 August 1995 renamed B-807
B-112 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 19 June 1964 27 October 1964 19 April 1990 -
B-25 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 26 August 1964 22 December 1964 3 July 1992 -
B-205 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 17 June 1969 29 August 1969 31 January 1996 -
B-143 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 21 October 1959 17 February 1960 24 June 1991 ex-Seafront Zeebrugge Museum, Belgium. 2019 towed away for scrapping in Ghent.
B-15 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 10 October 1963 21 February 1964 29 October 1992 -
B-427 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 10 April 1971 22 June 1971 28 April 1994 Museum, Long Beach, California, USA
B-39 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 9 February 1967 15 April 1967 5 July 1994 Museum, San Diego, California, USA
B-440 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 1 June 1970 16 September 1970 1999 Museum, Vytegra, Russia
B-435 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 24 March 1970 29 May 1970 Unknown As U-01 "Zaporizhiya" in the Ukraine
B-9 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 26 December 1964 31 March 1965 17 July 1997 -
B-4 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 14 June 1960 3 October 1960 24 June 1991 -
B-57 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 23 April 1959 15 August 1959 24 June 1991 -
B-7 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 14 April 1961 29 June 1961 19 April 1990 -
B-21 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 29 October 1964 16 February 1965 3 July 1995 Decommissioned for scrapping
B-26 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 6 May 1965 10 August 1965 24 June 1991 -
B-28 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 24 May 1965 10 August 1965 30 June 1993 -
B-34 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 13 August 1965 16 November 1965 24 June 1991 -
B-40 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 24 September 1965 16 November 1965 30 June 1993 -
B-29 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 25 March 1966 20 May 1966 2003 1988 Renamed 293 Dzik
B-41 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 7 April 1966 20 May 1966 24 August 1993 -
B-46 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 13 August 1966 24 December 1966 30 June 1993 -
B-49 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 12 October 1966 24 December 1966 31 December 1993 Museum, Rochester, Kent, England
B-397 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 7 May 1967 22 August 1967 30 June 1993 -
B-400 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 29 May 1967 22 August 1967 24 September 1991 -
B-413 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 28 June 1968 7 October 1968 1999 Museum, Kaliningrad, Russia
B-416 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18 July 1968 25 February 1969 3 July 1992 -
B-213 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 1 October 1969 20 January 1970 30 June 1993 -
B-409 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18 December 1970 2 March 1971 30 June 1993 -

Operators[edit]

Most saw service in the Soviet Navy. Foxtrots were also built for the Indian Navy (eight units, from 1967 to 1974), Libyan (six units, from 1978 to 1980), and Cuban (six units, from 1978 to 1983) navies. Some Soviet Foxtrots later saw service in the Polish and Ukrainian navies.

On display[edit]

Several Foxtrots are on display as museums around the world, including:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Korabli VMF SSSR, Vol. 1, Part 2, Yu. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0072-4
  2. ^ "Russian Navy". Fas.org. 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  3. ^ http://www.deepstorm.ru/DeepStorm.files/45-92/dts/641/list.htm
  4. ^ In Sevastopol celebrated the anniversary of including the great submarine "Zaporizhia" to the fleet as combat ready (У Севастополі відзначили річницю прийняття великого підводного човна “Запоріжжя” до бойового складу флоту). Ministry of Defence of Ukraine. 21 January 2013
  5. ^ http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ukraine-crisis/ukrainian-sailors-surrender-submarine-russian-navy-n59451
  6. ^ Cold War Submarines, Polmar & Moore, Brassey's Inc., Washington, D.C. 2004; Podvodnye Lodki Kholodnoy Voyny, OAO SPMBM Malakhit, Sankt Peterburg, 2011
  7. ^ All photos taken inside museum ship acknowledged to User:Mario52
  8. ^ Navy decommissions last Kalvari-class submarine INS Vagli
  9. ^ "Submarine forces (Libya), Submarines - Submarine forces". Janes. Nov 10, 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  10. ^ http://www.focus-wtv.be/nieuws/museumduikboot-verdwijnt-uit-zeebrugge
  11. ^ Подводная лодка Б-440 (Submarine B-444) (in Russian)
  • Miller, David (2002). The Illustrated Directory of Submarines of the World. London: Salamander Books. ISBN 1-84065-375-2.
  • А.Б. Широкорад: Советские подводные лодки послевоенной постройки (A.B. Shirokorad: Sowjet Submarines built after WWII) Moscow, 1997, ISBN 5-85139-019-0 (Russian)
  • Y. Apalkow: Корабли ВМФ СССР. Многоцелевые ПЛ и ПЛ спецназначания ("Ships of the USSR - Multi-purpose submarines and Special submarines"), St Petersburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0069-4 (Russian)

External links[edit]